The second misconception in present scientific understanding of fat formation on the body is the “energy balance”.We have been told that weight loss occurs because of a state of negative energy balance and that weight gain occurs because of the state of positive energy balance. Such explanation is accepted as unquestionable scientific truth by the entire scientific community.

Here are just two examples that reflect present scientific explanation of the occurrence of weight gain and the occurrence of weight loss.

According to Wikipedia, “Weight loss occurs when an individual is in a state of negative energy balance. When the human body is losing more chemical energy in work and heat than it is gaining from food or other nutritional supplements, it will catabolise stored reserves (or fat) inside the body.”

According to Association for Study of Obesity the “Weight gain occurs when the amount of energy (calories) consumed as food and drink exceeds the energy which is used for exercise and other metabolic processes of the body. This is known as positive energy balance. The excess energy is stored principally as fat. Each kilogram of fat stores approximately 9000kcal. This fat can only be lost when the body requires more energy than is available from food and thus draws upon its energy stores. This is known as negative energy balance.”

It sounds scientific, but let’s take a little bit of scrutiny on this unquestionable scientific truth.

How is it possible to describe the situation when a body is in a state of negative energy balance (at which point the human body is in a state of negative energy balance)?

Is it when the body is in a state of negative energy balance then, when there are no calories left in digestive system and at this point the body starts to “draws upon its energy stores” (literarily, bite fat tissues…..self cannibalism ..?)
Or is it that the human body is in a state of negative energy balance when there is 1kcal calorie left in digestive system and at this point metabolism start to “draws upon its energy stores”.
Or is it when the human body is in a state of negative energy balance and decide to “draws upon its energy stores” (literarily, bite fat tissues) when 5kcal is left in the digestive system, or when 10kcal or 50kcal or 500kcal is or when there is 2000kcal.

Same questions are applying for “a state of positive energy balance”; at which point is the human body in the state of “positive energy balance”?
Is it the human body in the “state of positive energy balance” when there is 1kcal in digestive system that body decide to convert this energy in fat mass for late use or is it when there is 5kcal or 10kcal or when is 50kcal or 500kcal or 2000kcal in digestive system.

To get the idea of how this scientific explanation is pointless you can discover in this way: In the time when you are reading this book ask your self are you at this moment in the state of “positive energy balance” or are you in the “state of negative energy balance” or you are in the state of grace with counting calories (calories in, equal calories out).
It will be funny if such a misconception was not responsible for so many peoples misery.

Any known intervention in the attempt to control weight of the body, (diet for weight loss, exercise for weight loss, pharmaceutical inventions, all WLS) is based on an understanding that weight gain occurs because of a state of positive energy balance and that weight loss occurs because of a state of negative energy balance.

The common understanding is that body will lose weight when it expends more energy than it takes in, and it sounds reasonable that energy to make up the shortfall must come from somewhere.
But the question is; when does the body expand more energy than what it takes in? is it when is one calorie left in digestive system or….

It needs to bear in mind that long before a body expands more energy than it takes in, the strength of the body will decrease to the point that it will cause an unconscious state and in a short time a death will follow parallel with the loss of the remaining strength. Still, the lifeless body (corpse) contain plenty of calories, (glucose, ketones, adenosine triphosphate, etc)

One important fact that needs to be taken into consideration is that a restriction of a food intake negatively affects the strength of the body on everyone; it doesn’t mater if a person is obese, overweight, normal weight or underweight.

Any mechanical engine stops to work when it runs out of energy or by an absence of sufficient energy supply. The human body stops to work when it runs out of strength.

The explanation that obesity occurs when the human body takes in more energy than it expends over a given period of time at the first moment sounds reasonable and it leads to the conclusion that the energy balance over period of time in biology is real. Only one fact needs to be taken into consideration that in the real world it is not possible to have a situation where the balance over a period of time exists, but doesn’t exist at a particular point of those periods of time.
In the real world, from nothing can’t turn into something, it doesn’t mater how long a period of time it is.

Concerning weight loss/weight gain, in the human body at any particular point, in any given period of time, the energy balance doesn’t exist.

Building body fat mass is not “a simply mater of balance” but it is a life process (biological process).

The “energy balance over period of time” has the meaning in physics, economics, climatology, hydrology etc and that is the fact that is misleading to the conclusion that in biology, energy balance over a period of time exists.

For example the financial balance over a given period of time is real. We do not need to know for each day what the financial situation is. It is enough on the end of the year to count how much was made and how much is spent. Do we know or do we not know what the financial situation is for each day is not important. What is important is that the financial situation for each day of the year exist (it is real) and if we like to know what is the financial situation for a particular day we are able to know. In each day of the year it is possible to know what the current financial balance is and that enables us to know what the balance between the annual income and the annual expenditure is.

Impossibility to know what the financial situation is in one particular day will make it pointless for any attempt to know what the financial balance is for one year.

In the case of energy balance (concerning weight gain/loss) it is not possible to locate the point in time when the body is in the state of positive or negative energy balance because the state of positive and state of the negative energy balance doesn’t exist.

Weather and climate balance over a given period of time is a real thing because we can see and know what is the current climate and weather situation and because of that, we can observe the change that is happening in climate and weather situation over a period of time. We can observe change that really happened.

The body weight is a real thing and we can observe change in the weight over any given period of time and as well as we are able to know exactly the weight of the body at any present point in a given period of time.

Any attempt to observe change on things that we can’t find, their existence at the present point of time (what is the case with the state of positive and negative energy balance) is pointless.

Naturally thin people and people affected by certain types of injury, elderly, and people affected by weightlessness and many another examples shows that scientific explanation based on energy balance to explain weight gain/weight loss is pointless.

Many examples from real life shows us that energy balance over a period of time doesn’t exist and on the other side, many examples from real life lead as to make the conclusion that still energy balance explains weight gain/weight loss.

Even bears are a good example that shows that energy balance over a period of time doesn’t exist. Bears eat plenty of food in autumn and gain the weight and over winter, they don’t eat and they lose the weight gained in autumn. First impression is that eating alone is responsible for weight gain and that absence of food is responsible for weight loss. But if we take a closer examinations we can see that even bears don’t gain weight in spring time and in early summer but they start to pick up the weight in middle of the summer and mostly in autumn.

If we undertake a closer examination the weight loss induced by weight loss surgeries we can discover some disturbing facts about the real cause of weight loss.

For everyone it is an unquestionable truth that weight loss surgeries force restriction of food intake and that causes weight loss.

Before we accept this conclusion it is useful to remind us that people affected with certain types of injuries involuntarily are losing weight.

Bearing in mind that certain types of injuries cause weight loss, it is reasonable to ask if restriction of food intake forced by WLS causes weight loss or is it something else.

One of the facts is that WLS forces restriction of food intake.

Another fact is that WLS is inflicting certain type of injury-the injury of the stomach. It leave open wound in the stomach that in many cases fail to heal.
Taking into account that people affected with certain types of injury involuntarily lose body weight strongly points that, in reality the patient that undergoes weight loss surgery does not lose weight because of restriction of food intake but because of the factor that is identical to the factor that is responsible for weight loss by people affected by certain types of injuries.

It is hard to believe, but this all evidence pointing that the theory that a body stores unused energy as a fat mass in fat tissues for late use is based on an incorrect assumption of the existence of the state of positive energy balance on one side and on the other side an incorrect assumption that metabolic waste is calories free.

In real life there are plenty of examples that clearly shows that building the fat mass (weight gain) on the body can’t be explained as simply a mater of a state of the positive energy balance, and there is plenty of evidence available that shows that building off the fat mass (weight loss) can’t be explained as simply a mater of a state of negative energy balance.

Restriction of food intake usually (not always) leads to weight loss. Involvement in moderate or rigorous exercise usually (not always) lead to weight loss. In both cases, the occurrence of weight loss is explained as a direct consequence of a state of negative energy balance and that is wrong.

In both cases, weight loss doesn’t happen because of a state of negative energy balance (the state of negative energy balance doesn’t exist) but because of the absence of required level of the strength and duration of mechanical stimulations on muscles, bones and fat tissues, that is, usually (but not always) caused by the restriction of food intake or by rigorous physical activity.

For example, on people affected by weightlessness (cosmonauts and astronauts) intake of food alone will not produce any weight gain. This means that in weightlessness food is essential for sustaining life but will not produce any weight gain as well as it will not prevent or slow weight loss.

To prevent weight loss and as well as to counteract other negative consequences for health caused by weightlessness, cosmonauts and astronauts spend a great amount of time doing exercises on specially designed exercise machines and devices.

Here on earth we have many examples when a regular or increased food intake doesn’t cause any weight gain and in many cases a normal or increased food intake alone is not sufficient to prevent or to slow involuntary weight loss.

A regular or increased food intake doesn’t produce weight gain on the elderly, the people affected with long standing illnesses, the people affected with certain type of injury and on the people affected by prolonged bed rest.

It is a widely accepted thought that the food intake together with the physical activity is responsible for building muscle mass and that the food intake and the physical inactivity is responsible for building fat mass but on the other side, the examples of people affected by weightlessness and people affected by prolonged bed rest, people affected with long standing illnesses and elderly it is clear that by absence of physical activity or by insufficient physical activity a regular or increased food intake will not produce any weight gain.

In all these examples it is clear that the food intake alone is not enough not only to gain new weight but is not enough to maintain the existing body weight.

While doing any physical activity we are using the strength of the muscles and the strength (solidity) of bones. Muscles (and bones) gain the strength because we are using them to do particularly physical activity. The muscle tissues (and bone tissues) gain the muscle mass because we are providing mechanical stimulation to the muscle tissues (and bones tissues).

It is a widely accepted thought that the increase of the muscles mass means as well the increase of the muscles strength and it is wrong. We can increase the strength of the muscle without increasing the muscle mass. And as well, we can increase the muscle mass without increasing muscles strength.
By doing any physical activity we are not using the fat tissues but in many cases we are providing mechanical stimulations to the fat tissues and that is the factor that maintains existing and builds new fat mass.

We are providing mechanical stimulation to fat tissues by unbalanced gait patterns and incorrect body posture.

Just slightly improvement in body posture and slightly improvement in locomotion efficiency (more balanced gait) will produce visible change in a few days by everyone and in the same time will positively affect healthy wellbeing.

Weight loss concerning fat mass of the body is not due to burning calories but due to atrophy of fat tissues. Atrophy of the fat tissues happenings because of an absence of required level of strength and duration of mechanical stimulation necessary for maintenance of the existing fat mass.

By simply observation we can notice the difference in the gait patterns and body posture between an obese and thin people.

The type of gait patterns and the type of body posture explains the fat formation and fat distribution on the body.

Observing the gait patterns of the bears we can notice that all bears of the same race have different gait patterns in spring and different gait patterns in autumn. Excessive feeding bears in springs will not produce weight gain on them. The changes in gait patterns in the summer enable the bears picking up on the weight. The weight gained causes the further change of the bears’ gait patterns.

It is known that with heavy exercise it is possible to achieve weight loss. But it is known as well that body doesn’t lose weight in time of doing exercise. Weight loss occurs after exercise is done. Body maintain elevating breathing rate for a few minutes after exercise and after that period regain pre- exercise breathing level.

The post exercise oxygen consumption doesn’t explain the post exercise weight loss.

In reality the post exercise weight loss is due to increased efficiency of locomotion and increased efficiency of supporting weight of the body against the pull of gravity. The increased efficiency of supporting and carrying own body weight is product of increased postural strength, postural stability and improvement in motor skill along with improvement of the body posture and gait pattern.

The increased efficiency of locomotion and the increased efficiency of supporting body weight against the pull of gravity cause decrease of mechanical stimulations on the bones, muscles and particularly on the fat tissues.

Post WLS weight loss occurs because of restriction of mechanical stimulation produced by working against the pull of gravity.

People affected with certain types of injuries and people affected with weight loss surgeries are losing weight for same reason. Change of the gait patterns and change of the body posture is responsible for occurrences of weight loss.

It shows that the restriction of calories intake with the intention to prevent building of the fat mass is wrong and as well the restriction of calories intake with intention to achieve building off the fat mass is wrong. Not only the restriction of food intake is wrong but as well the involvement in strenuous physical activity with intention to burn calories is wrong.

In an attempt to understand the real cause of obesity the “energy balance” is meaningless word and doesn’t explain nothing concerning weight gain/weight loss but is misleading and obstructing to understand how certain type of physical activity causing weight loss and how some another type of physical activity is causing weight gain and how certain type of physical activity by some people is causing weight gain and by some another people is causing weight loss.

Wasting away of the body (bone mass, muscle mass, fat mass….) in weightlessness is major obstacle to any possible prolonged space flight. In weightlessness, the only way to slow wastage of the bones, muscles and fat mass is to provide muscles, bones and fat tissues with mechanical stimulation and that is to the some extent possible by doing exercise on specially designed exercising machines and devices.

Here on the earth is to confront with reality that the food, water and air are essential for sustaining life but the mechanical stimulations is the essential factor for the maintenance of the existing muscles, bones and fat mass and as well for building the new fat, muscles and bones mass…..[The full text of this article is in the book]

 

Biomechanics and Weight Loss – B/W Edition

Biomechanics and Weight Loss – Colour Edition

 

Copyright © 2008 Luka Tunjic All right reserved

 

 

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